Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of supernumerary teeth in a Nigerian subpopulation.
Methods: Hyperdontia of permanent teeth was retrospectively evaluated from orthopantomograms obtained from 611 (364 female and 247 male) apparently healthy dental patients aged 10 to 25 years presented with a variety of dental complaints at a specialist dental clinic in Lagos, Nigeria. Pearson’s Chisquared test was used for comparison according to gender (P < 0.05).
Results: A total of 50 supernumerary teeth were observed in 29 panoramic radiographs. The rate of supernumerary teeth was higher in the maxilla (58.0 %) than in the mandible (42.0 %) though not statistically significant. The ratio of males to females with supernumerary teeth was 1:1.6 (P > 0.05). The most observed hyperdontia was of a single supernumerary tooth (48.3 %). The most frequent site for supernumerary teeth was in the maxillary molar region (46.0%), followed by mandibular molar region (22.0%), mandibular premolar region (14.0%), maxillary premolar region (8.0%), mandibular incisor region (6.0%) and maxillary incisor region (4.0%). Conical morphology was observed in 20% (n = 10), while 36% (n = 18) were tuberculate and 44% (n = 22) were in supplemental form. Eight (16%) of all supernumerary teeth were erupted, and 84% (N = 42) were impacted. Most supernumerary teeth (60%) were vertically oriented. This was followed by horizontal (16%), mesioinclined (14%), inverted (6%), and distoinclined supernumeraries (4%).
Conclusions: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in a population of Nigerian dental patients was 4.7% without a significant gender preference. The most frequent site was the maxillary molar region, with most of the supernumerary teeth impacted.