Objective: Hypercoagulability in sickle cell disease may be responsible for an increased development of vascular occlusion in certain organs and acute pain episodes. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) assay is a measure of hypercoagulability. This study aims to measure PAI-1 by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Methods: A case-control, cross sectional study was carried out amongst sickle cell patients (cases) and blood donors (controls) at the sickle cell and blood donor clinics respectively of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Ikeja. A total of 15mls of blood was collected per participant, shared into plain, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and citrated bottles. The sera were subjected to ELISA to determine concentration of PAI-1, full blood count was done on the EDTA samples and prothrombin and activated partial thrombin time were done on the citrated sample in all participants. A statistical software package SPSS version 17 was used for data analysis.
Results: A total of eighty (80) participants were enrolled into the study, consisting of forty (40) sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) patients (cases) and forty HbAA participants (controls). The overall mean plasminogen activator inhibitor concentration of cases and controls were 319.83±151.67 ng/ml and 236.80 ±120.32 ng/ml respectively. The overall mean prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thrombin time (APTT) of cases were 18.1 ±1.6 seconds and 34.63±6.31 seconds respectively. The overall for controls were 18.0±1.9 and 38.0±6.3 seconds respectively.
Conclusion: PAI-1concentration was elevated and APTT shortened in SCD compared with controls confirming evidence of hyercoagulable state in SCD patients.